Fewer reported emissions in diesel engine with nanoparticles

In an article published in the journal Materials today: procedures, the use of used cooking oils (WCO) as a biofuel associated with zinc oxide (ZnO), aluminum oxide (Al2oh3), and graphene nanoparticles with clean diesel are being studied to increase engine efficiency while reducing diesel engine emissions.

To study: Performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the single cylinder CI engine with WCO biodiesel and nanoparticles. Image Credit: Scharfsinn / Shutterstock.com

The problem with fossil fuels

Globally, more than 10 billion tonnes of fossil fuels are used each year. To meet the growing demand, the use of fossil fuels is expected to increase further in the near future.

The problem with using fossil fuels is that they emit harmful pollutants. Burning fossil fuels mainly releases CO2, a major greenhouse gas among the main causes of global warming.

Other pollutants, such as sulfur, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), represent a significant danger to human health, contributing to severe asthma, poor cardiorespiratory fitness, chronic bronchitis and heart problems.

Much research has focused on alternative fuels due to the increased requirement to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Efforts were also focused on improving the combustion efficiency of the engine while using standard gasoline.

What is biodiesel?

Biodiesel is a clean alternative combustion fuel made from locally available recyclable sources. The fuel is a mixture of fatty acid alkyl esters derived from animal fats, vegetable oils and reprocessed fats.

Biodiesel can be used directly in compression ignition (CI) engines without any modification being necessary. It is easy to use, renewable, biodegradable and contains no sulfur or aromatic hydrocarbons.

It is often used as an addition to diesel fuel to reduce the amounts of particulates, CO, aromatics and toxins emitted by diesel cars.

Although recycled used cooking oil (OMD) is harmful to health, disposing of leftover cooking oil is not environmentally friendly. Accordingly, the ideal approach is to use it for industrial uses, such as converting to biodiesel.

The MDG is used as a raw material to reduce the prices of biofuels. WCO biodiesel can reduce the cost of biodiesel production since raw material expenses represent about 70 to 95 percent of total biodiesel synthesis expenses.

The injection of nanoparticles (NP) into the fuel improves its thermal conductivity. By improving the thermal conductivity of the fuel, its combustion is improved, and hence the combustion efficiency is increased.

As a result, the use of NPs will improve the combustion efficiency of biodiesel in internal combustion engines and increase engine performance. In addition, since NPs have a larger surface area to volume ratio, improved combustion can be achieved in the combustion chamber.

The nanoscale additives also increase the ignition temperature, decrease the ignition delay and increase the radiative mass transfer of the biofuel into the combustion zone. Through improved combustion, the use of NP can minimize emissions in IC engines.

Research methodology

The team carried out the experiment on a water-cooled, naturally aspirated, direct injection, single-cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine. The engine had an 18: 1 compression ratio and could produce 3,500 W of power at a constant speed of 1,500 rpm, and the fuels used in the tests were a combination of biodiesel and NP.

First, the different physicochemical parameters of mixed biodiesel were studied and compared with those of clean diesel, which is used as base fuel.

The experiment was then conducted at 1,500 rpm and varying loads of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of full load capacity for diesel fuel to examine combustion performance and performance. CI engine emissions quality.

Various biofuels were also tested in the same IC engine to determine their combustion performance and the quality of emissions. Finally, after evaluation, the energy mix was adjusted according to combustion performance and the quality of emissions.

Main conclusions

The study aimed to assess the combustion performance and emission characteristics of WCO-based biodiesel in a single-cylinder CI engine with various NPs.

Compared to conventional diesel, biodiesel nanoparticle blends have shown high thermal braking efficiency (BTE). Graphene and ZnO NP blended biodiesel were found to produce exceptional BTE, and emission levels of CO, HC and NOx were reduced by including NPs in the blend.

However, compared to regular diesel, all mixtures of NP and B20 mix were found to emit more smoke.

Continue Reading: Can Nanoparticle Fuel Additives Give Fossil Fuel Engines Hope?

Reference

Nayak, V., Karthik, A., Sreejith, B., et al. (2021) Performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a single cylinder CI engine with WCO biodiesel and nanoparticles. Materials today: Acts. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214785321072746?via%3Dihub

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